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Water is the transparent odorless and nearly colorless chemical element that is the main part of earth’s streams, lakes, and oceans. It is a universal solvent which plays an important role in our everyday life.

Because water is so important to both human, animal and plant existence, there is a greater need to manage and control the use of water to avoid wastages of this God-given natural resources.

Both industries and in our home, water play a very important and unavoidably roles, because of this, it prompts me to do a research and try to see how we can manage and avoid these wastages by building this automatic water level control switch in which it primary function is to avoid water wastage and gives us steady and constant water for our domestic and industrial uses.



The automatic level control is an electronic equipment which when electrically connected to the starter of any given pump-set motor will control the operation of the pump-set depending upon the water level in the source and destination storage tanks.

It switches ON the pump-set when the water level drops below the gauge level in the tank,  and automatically switches off the pumping machine when the water level in the tank reaches its maximum level.

An automatic water level control switch is an engineering project. It can automatically switch ON and OFF the water pumping machine depending on the tank water level. You can implement this motor driver circuit at your home or college using less costly components.

The main advantage of this water level controller switch is that if automatically controls the water pump without any user interaction. The automatic pump controller eliminates the need for any manual switching of pumps installed for the purpose of pumping water from a reservoir to an overhead tank. It automatically switches on the pump when the water level in the tank falls below a certain gauge level.

Subsequently, as the water level in the tank rises to an upper level (m), the pump switch OFF automatically. The pump is turned on again only when the water level again falls below the level in the tank, provided the level in the reservoir is above R. This automatic action continues.


The objective of this work is to construct a device that will control the flow and pumping of water into any reservoir storage tank, without the presence of an operator.


A water level controller switch is an application that detects the level of water then triggers the pump and blows alarm and vice versa. They are useful devices and play an important role in various industries such as automatically, irrigation and also at homes or wherever water is pump either underground or overhead.


This water controller will give you a heads-up, the instant over-head tank, and the underground tank is full or goes below the required level, hopefully giving you time to close windows and bring in possessions. The circuit draws virtually no current when the sensors are dry and the current consumption is low when the buzzer is activated.  Alternately, a molded power supply with a simple voltage to drop the voltage to 3 volts could be used. When the circuit is triggered, the buzzer is pulsed about once per second for a very short time.


  1. Sensors used are built with conductive material which means that they are subject to rusting or corrosion. When rusting occur the sensors will stop conducting thereby causing these devices will stop working.
  2. Inability to access the material locally

Financial constrain and limitation

  1. Insufficient power supply.


The significance of the design and construction of an automatic water level switch cannot be overemphasized in the sense that it is financially viable particularly in where you have many children.

It has the capacity of switching ON itself when the water level gets very low and to switched OFF whenever it reaches the normal point. This is done without human interference to control its operation.

  1. The automatic water level controller (AWLC) will automatically START the pump set soon as the water level falls below the predetermined level (usually kept half or 2/3rd tank) and shall switch OFF the pump set as soon as the tank is full.
  2. This system provides you the flexibility to decide for yourself the water levels for operations of pump set in upper/lower tanks.



Historical development of design and construction of automatic water level control switch are product that was created to automatically control a motor, which help to ensure a constant reserve of water in a storage tank. These automatic water level controllers are used to automatically fill the over-head tank when it starts or has become empty as well as monitor the water level in it.

Automatic water level controllers switch the motor on whenever the water level drops below a certain level and shuts the motor off when the water rises well above a fixed level. The water will also switch off when the sump water is exhausted before it fills the over-head tank, or if the pump is running dry as well as maintains voltage fluctuations.


A control system manages commands, directs or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops. It can range from a single home heating controller using a thermostat controlling a demotic boiler to large industrial control systems that are used for controlling processes or machines.

For continuously modulated control, a feedback controller is used to automatically control a process or operation. The control system compares the values of status of the process variable (PV) being controlled with the desired value or setpoint (SP), and applies the difference as a control signal to bring the process variable output of the plant to the same value as the set-point.


There are two common classes of control action; open loop and closed loop. In an open-loop control system, the control action from the controller is independent of the process variable. An example of this is a central automatic water level controlled only by a timer. The control action is switching on or off of the pump. The process variable is the building temperature. This controller applies and supplies water regardless of the temperature of the day.


In a closed-loop control system, the control action from the controller is dependent on the desired and actual process variable. In the case of an automatic water level control analogy, this would utilize a 555 timer to monitor when the water level is below the normal level and when to start pumping again and feedback a signal to ensure the controller output maintains the normal temperature to that set on the starter.

A closed-loop controller has a feedback loop that ensures the controller exerts a control action to control a process variable at the same value as the set point. For this reason, closed-loop controllers are also called feedback controllers.



A water control switch (automatic) is a type of level sensor, a device used to detect the level of liquid within a tank. The switch may be used to control a pump, as an indicator, an alarm, or to control other devices.


It is an electro-mechanical liquid level switch designed to provide a reliable, electro-mechanical respond to liquid level changes. The simple and basic design ensures long lifetime performance and reliable operation for many applications, can control liquid level in vessels and accumulators.



There are methods of designing an automatic water pump control panel device with switching power but all these methodologies require human assistance. In this project, an automatic water pump panel device is designed using a control device to refill the water without human intervention.

The system design was, carefully arranged to refill the water tank anytime water get low to a certain level finally the system automatically shuts down the water pump by putting the electric pump off when the tank is full. The approach used in this work is the modular design approach; the overall design was broken into function block diagrams. Where each block in the diagram represents a section of the circuit that carries out a specific function.

The system was designed using functional blocks as shown in the block diagram below. In this method, the circuit is designed to display or function on their different level using a float sensor.

The project design automatic water pump control panel with switching device is to ensure the control of water spillage. The major component used in the project design is float switch, float sensor, the power supply unit, relays and contactor.


Sensors are devices that convert physical property or a change in the physical property into a more easily manipulated form, for example, voltage, displacement, resistance. The major forms of energy that sensors can detect can be classified as motion, temperature, and light pressure, electrical, magnetic, chemical and nuclear. It is important to know that a wide variety of sensors can measure temperature but it can be more useful in electronics because it converts temperature, pressure, and level to an electrical signal compatible with an electronic circuit. The number of sensors available for use in modern industrial and domestic seems almost unlimited. The water level detection sensors are like input transducers used to accept the input signals to the relay and for other operation of the tank. The sensor works on the principle of water conduct electricity.


A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two conductors separated by a non-conductor. Capacitors are used as part of electrical system; for example, consist of metal soils separated by a layer of insulating firm, A capacitor is passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator) when there is a potential difference (voltage) across the positive on one plate and negative on the other plate. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field and is measured in farads.


HOW DOES A CONTACTOR FUNCTION? A contactor is an electrically-controlled switch used for switching an electrical power circuit. A contactor is typically controlled by a circuit, which has a lower power level than the switched circuit, such as a 24-volt coil electromagnet controlling a 230-volt motor.

A contactor is used by electrical equipment that is frequently turned off and on with the opening and closing of a circuit. The function of the contractor is to make and break all power lines running to a load or to repeatedly established and interrupt an electrical power circuit.


A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust the signal level to divide voltages, bias active element, and terminate transmission lines among other uses.


The main function of resistors in a circuit is to control the flow of current to other components.


The light-emitting diode also known as LED is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p-n junction diode that emits lights when activated.

When a suitable current is applied to the leads, electronic are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the turns of photons.


A float switch is a device used to detect the level of liquid in a tank. The switch may be used in a pump, an indicator or alarm.

Float switch ranges from small to large and may be as simple as a mercury switch inside a longed float or as complex as a series of optical or conductance sensors producing discrete outputs as the liquid reaches many different levels within the tank. Perhaps the most common type of a float switch is simply floating raising a rod that actuates a microswitch.


A very common application is in sump pumps and condensate pumps where the switch detects the rising level of liquid in the sump or tank and energies an electrical pump which then pumps liquid (water) until the level is sustainable.

The purpose of a float switch is to open or close a circuit as the level of water (liquid) rises or fails. Most switches are “normally closed”, meaning the two wires coming from the top of the switch complete a circuit when the float is at its low point, resting on its bottom clip (for example, when tank is dry).

To complete a circuit, float switches utilize a magnetic need switch, which consists of a two contacts sealed in a glass tube. When a magnet comes close to the two contacts, they become attracted to each other and touch, allowing current to pass through, When’ the magnet moves away, the contacts demagnetize and separate (breaking the circuit) as shown in the diagram.

Reed switches in open position      

In float switch, the magnetic reed switch is hermetically sealed in a stem, most often made from plastic or stainless steel. The float encases a sealed magnet, which moves up and down the length of the stem as a fluid level rises and falls. As the magnet passes by the contact in the encased reed switch, they touch and complete a circuit between the two lead wires.


Properly used, float switches can deliver millions of ON/OFF cycles, for fears of dependable operation. Failures are normally due to overloading, frequently caused by spiking voltage.

Level sensors detect the level of fluids (water) and fluidized solids, including slurries, granular materials, and powder that exhibit and upper free space, but it applies here will be limited only to fluid (water). Substances that flow become essentially horizontal in their containers (or other physical boundaries).

The point level sensor will indicate whether the substance is above or below the sensing point. Generally. The latter detect levels that are excessively high or low. Level sensors are one of the very important roles in a variety of consumer and industrial applications. As with other types of sensors, level sensors are available or can be designed using a variety of sensing principles. The selection of an appropriate type of sensor suiting to the application requirement is very important.

The principle behind magnetic, mechanical, cab 6 and other float level sensors often involves the opening or closing of a mechanical switch.

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Float type sensors can be designed so that a shield protects the float itself from turbulence and wave motion. Float sensors operate well in a wide variety of liquids/ including corrosives when used for organic solvents however, one will need to verify that these liquids are chemically compatible with the materials used to construct the sensor.

Float – type sensor should not be used in high viscosity (thick) liquids, sludge or liquids that adhere to the stain or floats, or materials that 19 contains contaminant such as metal chips,  other sensing technologies are better suited for these applications.


The project is made up of four modules namely

  1. Sensing unit
  2. Control unit
  3. Power supply unit
  4. Pump control unit.


There are many types of power supply, some are designed to convert high voltage AC to marks electricity to a suitable low voltage supply for electronic circuits and other devices.


The pump control segments consist of one 2 volt relay. The 240 VAC is attached to the common of the relay while the pump is attached to the normally open pin of the relay the contactor is.




A water level indicator is used to show the level of water in an over head tank. This keeps the user informed about the water level at all times and avoids the situation of water running out when it is most needed. Most water level indicators for water tanks are based upon the number of LEDs that glow to indicate the corresponding level of water in the container.


This chapter entail the overall system testing of integrated design of voltage measurement device .the testing and integration is done to ensure that the design is functioning properly as expected thereby enabling one or even intended users for which the project was targeted for, appreciate its implementation and equally approaches used in the design and integration of various modules of the project.

However, this involves checks made to ensure that all the various units and subsystem function adequately also there has to be good interface existing between the output /input unite subsystem. When the totality of the modules was integrated together, the system was created and all modules and sections responded to as specified in the design through the power supply delivering into the system designed.


A similar components like resistor were packed together. The other component includes, transistor, transformer, resistor, Diodes (rectifier) LED, transistor, voltage regulators etc Reference was made to the color-coding datasheet to ascertain the expected value of resistors used.

Each resistor was tested and the value read and recorded. The collector, base, emitter junctions were tested in the following order. The collector, emitter and base pins were gotten from the data analysis on the power transistor.


After the design and implementation phase, the system built has to be tested for durability and effectiveness and also ascertain if there is need to modify the design .the system was first assembled using breadboard, all the component were properly soldered to the Vero board from whence some test was carried out at various stage to ensure proper functioning of component expected data, the component were tested using a digital multimeter (DMM). Resistors were tested to ensure that there within the tolerance value. Faulty resistor was discarded. The integrated circuit I and 2 were ensured they are working properly.


The system was powered and operated upon using several possibilities they include making sure that at the peak of the tank, the seven-segment display or indicate that the water level has reach maximum on the screen through the 1C 74HC147 which incorporates sensor.


After the completion of the work, the circuitry was enclosed in a case to avoid damage. This is very vital to the packaging of any electronic equipment, the enclosure provides protection as well as an attraction that is, it adds aesthetic value to the work.

The sizes of the tank to be used for packaging was first of all determined after considering the following factors

  • Easy input and removal of water from the tanks
  • Positions of the tanks
  •  Space for future modifications, easy accessibility to circuit board
  •  Easy mobility of the tanks.


To carry out this project some things were put into considerations. Among those things include the cost of the component used for the construction was the priority. The table below shows the component that are used in the project construction, the quantity and also the price of each components.

1 Contactor 32A 1 4,500 4,500
2 Relay 220V 40A 1 2,600 2,600
3. Breaker 24A 1 1,500 1,500
4. Capacitor    . 40UF 1 1,500 1,500
5. Switches 200 200
6. Casing 2,500 2,500
Total 12,800




Going through the planning, flow process, design flow rate calculation and implementation, the system has been a tough one,   the chapter one to four have actually tried as much as possible to explain vividly almost all and what is involved in the construction of this project. After the complete design of the system, the testing and packaging were done and the project was certified working properly.


The project, design, and construction of water level indicators are a unique work saddle to indicate pumping water at the peak of the tank or container. However, this involves that the system was been tested and the component function properly by the use of power supply.


I strongly recommend that the government should set up industries for the production of basic electronic components locally and establish research centers in each university/Polytechnic to enable students to have good sound practical knowledge on electronics component and their operation.

Secondly, I will also want the school management to procured Standard Electrical equipment for practical has enshrined in NTBE standard of establishing a Polytechnic.


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Power, H.M, and Simpsin, R. J. (2000). Introduction to Dynamics and Control, McGraw- Hill,      New York

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            Systems, Macmillan Press, New York.

Sedha, R.S. (2012). A Textbook of Applied Electronics .10th Edition, S.Chad & Company, India

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Weedy, B.M., and Cory, B.J.(1998). Electric Power Systems. 4th Edition, John Wiley and Son.     New York

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